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  • Use of red ochre by early Neandertals | PNAS

    Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period

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  • The Historical Use of Ochre Pigments in Newfoundland and

    Iron(III) oxide (ferric oxide Fe 2 O 3 ) ranging between 20% and 70%. Ochre Red ochre was mined directly from the earth, or it could be made by calcining yellow ochre. Much of the red ochre used during the late eighteenth century was probably made from yellow ochre rather than dug up as red ochre. Many Heritage NL Fieldnotes Series - March 2019 Page 2 painters probably burned or calcined

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  • Ochre: an ancient health-giving cosmetic -

    Red ochre was prepared by burning the hard clay and rocky material to obtain the iron oxide pigment which was then ground up into a fine powder that readily mixed with animal fat. A number of early recorders, such as Bunbury (1836), Grey (1840), Austin (1841) and Moore (1842), describe how it was used as an adornment.

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  • Iron Ochre Problems in Agricultural Drains - B.C. Ministry

    Red streaks of iron in the subsoil can also indicate a high content of ferrous iron. Organic layers in the soil can also contribute to ochre formation. Neighboring drainage systems can, in some situations, give an indication of what to expect should the soil type be the same.

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  • Iron Oxide Pigments (Natural) -

    Wilgie Mia red ochre deposit in the Weld Range, Western Australia, is a well-documented example, and the Bookartoo red ochre deposit in the northern Flinders Ranges is a local example of past Aboriginal mining activity. The principal pigment minerals are: haematite, Fe2O3 (red) magnetite, Fe3O4 (brown to black) goethite, FeOOH.xH2O (yellow) lepidocrocite, FeOOH.xH2O (yellow). Natural iron

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  • Raman identification of natural red to yellow

    Raman identification of natural red to yellow pigments: ochre and iron-containing ores Froment, Françoise; Resources About ADS ADS Help What's New

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  • Minerals used as pigments - SlideShare

    OCHRE • Ochre is principally hydrated iron-oxide, and its pigmentary quality is mainly due to the presence of iron-oxides. • Hydrated iron-oxides yield yellow colour and anhydrous red. A mixture of ferrous and ferric oxides imparts mainly brown besides other shades. • The quality and value of ochre are judged by its staining power, brilliance and fine texture. • Umber is a brown ochre

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  • Iron Water: The Problem with Iron Ochre |

    Iron is one of the earth's most plentiful resources, making up at least five percent of the earth's crust. It can be found in water all over the United States and in parts of Canada. Though not detrimental to human health Minnesota Department of Health), iron in water can obstruct drainage systems and cause other problems for the homeowner. Specifically, if the level of iron in water is high

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  • Ochre - The Oldest Known Natural Pigment in

    03.07.2019· Ochre contains a minimum of 12% iron oxyhydroxide, but the amount can range up to 30% or more, giving rise to the wide range of colors from light yellow to red and brown. The intensity of color depends on the degree of oxidation and hydration of the iron oxides, and the color becomes browner depending on the percentage of manganese dioxide, and redder based on the percentage of hematite.

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  • Making paint with minerals | Resource | RSC

    Red-brown = haematite (iron(III) oxide Fe2O3), a mineral found in many parts of the world. Ochre is clay that is coloured by varying amounts of haematite, from 20% to 70%. Red ochre contains unhydrated haematite; yellow ochre contains hydrated hematite (Fe2O3 H2O). The principal use of ochre is for tinting with a permanent colour and has been used from Palaeolithic times. Black = charcoal

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  • Pigments through the Ages - Overview - Red Ochre

    Brief description of Red Ochre: Red ochre is composed mailnly of iron oxide, hematite which word comes from Greek, hema meaning blood. Used from prehistory and throughout history, these permanent pigments can be safely mixed with other pigments. Ochres vary widely in transparency; some are quite opaque, while others are valued for their use as glazes. Names for Red Ochre: Alternative names

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  • Iron ore and ochre mines | Minerals and mines

    Iron ore is most commonly found as haematite (Fe 2 O 3), pyrite (FeS 2) and goethite (FeO.OH), or as a mixture of hydrated iron oxides known as limonite. In the Mendips, haematite and goethite commonly occur together as either massive, granular, often siliceous masses, or as altered, amorphous, loosely compacted, earthy varieties known as ochre. Two type of ochre occur: red ochre, which is

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  • 12 Types of Ochre Color - Simplicable

    Red Ochre #913832. Notes. In addition to clay and iron oxide, ochre pigments may be based on earth and iron oxide-hydroxide that has a distinctive yellow color. Overview: Ochre : Type: Brown . Definition: A series of brown, yellow and red colors that are based on a family of traditional pigments made with clay, earth, ferric oxide and/or iron oxide-hydroxide. Associations: Ancient colors that

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  • Ochre: an ancient health-giving cosmetic -

    The main color giving component of natural red ochre (ocher) is composed of hematite (∝-Fe2O3). The term red ochre (ocher) or red earth describes various kinds of iron oxide pigments such as Venetian red, mars red, English red, Indian red. The nomenclature is by no means unequivocal and various authors have used the names differently.

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  • Red Ochre: The Colour of Survival - The Thread

    28.04.2020· The first red pigment ever discovered, ochre was derived from iron rich rocks containing hematite hundreds of thousands of years ago, a highly pigmented mineral that easily stained the skin and could be shaped into sticks, or ground into a fine, powdered pigment. In early cultures, the colour's resemblance to blood linked it to fertility, life and growth, a symbolism that has persisted

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  • What is Iron Ocher - Basement Boss

    15.01.2016· What is Iron Ocher. Posted January 15, 2016 or Iron Bacteria. commonly known as iron ocher, iron algae, or as some basement waterproofing installers call it, red slime or the "red stuff". Actually the problem is not really iron ocher. Iron bacteria are microorganisms that use iron ocher as a source of energy. Here's what basically happens in simple terms: First, one type of these

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  • Iron ore and ochre mines | Minerals and mines

    Iron ore is most commonly found as haematite (Fe 2 O 3), pyrite (FeS 2) and goethite (FeO.OH), or as a mixture of hydrated iron oxides known as limonite. In the Mendips, haematite and goethite commonly occur together as either massive, granular, often siliceous masses, or as altered, amorphous, loosely compacted, earthy varieties known as ochre. Two type of ochre occur: red ochre, which is

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  • Iron Ochre Control Methods - BC Ministry of Agriculture

    Iron ochre will stick to plastic drainpipe with about 20% more force than to a fired clay tile. Experiments have also shown that compounds mixed into the plastic of a pipe increase or decrease the ability of ochre to stick to it. For example, tin compounds in the plastic made the ochre stick less while lead salts make it adhere nine times greater. Ochre becomes more adhesive as it ages and

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  • Iron Ochre And Related Sludge Deposits In Subsurface Drain

    Ochre deposits and associated slimes are usually red, yellow, or tan in color. Ochre is filamentous (from bacterial filaments), amorphous (more than 90% water), and has a high iron content (2 to 65% dry wt.). It is a sticky mass combined with an organic matrix (2 to 50% dry wt.) that can clog drain entry slots, drain envelopes, and the valleys of the corrugations between envelope and inlet

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  • Ochre - Wikipedia

    Hematite is a more reddish variety of iron oxide, and is the main ingredient of red ochre. When limonite is roasted, it turns partially to the more reddish hematite and becomes red ochre or burnt sienna. The clay hills of Roussillon, Vaucluse, in Provence have been an

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